Spanish Prepositions - POR and PARA

The words por and para are extraordinarily confusing in Spanish, because they have such similar meanings and such diverse usages. Don’t expect to master the uses of por and para after finishing this lesson. It will take much longer to get used to all the instances in which one rather than the other is used.

In general, por and para both mean for or by. Just to show how tricky translating the word “for” in English can be, look at the following sentences and try to translate them in your mind.

• I voted for Garcia Vallejo in the elections.
• I bought a gift for my parents.
• I went for a run.
• I asked for a drink.

Is this what you got?

o Voté por García Vallejo en las elecciones.
o Compré un regalo para mis padres.
o Fui a correr.
o Pedí una bebida.

Notice that if you’re going to use the verb pedir (to ask for), you will NOT need to use either por or para, as “for” is already included in the meaning of the verb itself.

Starting with POR

Usage #1: Thanks

The most common usage of por will be in the expression, “Thanks for…”

Gracias por ayudarme. - Thanks for helping me.
Gracias por su hospitalidad. - Thanks for your hospitality.

Usage #2: Motion

You will use the preposition por if you want to talk about going through a certain place or passing by a certain place. In these contexts, por takes on the meaning of through, by, along, or around.

Por ejemplo: (Don’t forget this use of ‘por’!)

Usage #3: Duration

Por is also used to describe the duration of an activity or an action, in which case it can mean during, in, or for.

Usage #4: Reason

If you want to express a motive, a cause, or a reason for doing something, you may use por. In this context, its meaning will become: for, on behalf of, because of, or on account of.

Por ejemplo:

El niño dejó de estudiar por su problema médico.

The boy left his studies because of his medical problem.

Por culpa de ellos, no terminamos el trabajo.

Because of them, we didn’t finish the job.

Lo hice por ella.

I did it for her.

Francisco viene por ella a las ocho.

Francisco comes for her at eight o’clock.

Por falta de estudiar no pasé el examen.

For lack of studying, I didn’t pass the exam.

Usage #5: Looking for Something

If you are looking for something or someone, you will use the word por. In this context, it will mean for or in search of.

Por ejemplo:

Juan regresó a su casa por la billetera.

Juan returned home for his wallet.

María fue a la biblioteca por un libro de historia.

María went to the library for a history book.

Usage #6: Via

Por can also mean via, by, or by way of.

Por ejemplo:

Usage #7: Exchange

When you want to exchange something or substitute it with something else, you will need to use por to mean for or in exchange for.

Por ejemplo:

Usage #8: Done by

You will often use por in sentences in the passive voice to express by whom the action was performed.

Usage #9: Measurement

Finally, you will often find por used in expressions of measurement, frequency, and even multiplication! It can mean for, per, or times.

Por ejemplo:

Using PARA

Fortunately, para has fewer uses than por.

Usage #1: Gifts

If you give something to someone, you will use para.

Por ejemplo:

Things can get a bit tricky if you talk about buying a gift for someone as a favor to someone else. Just remember: if you give something to someone, you will use para. If you do something for someone, you will use por.
















 

Usage #2: Destination

If you are talking about your destination or direction of travel, you will use para to mean to, towards, or in the direction of.

Vamos para Barcelona este fin de semana.

Let’s go to Barcelona this weekend.

Ángel ya salió para Buenos Aires.

Angel already left for Buenos Aires.

Los viajeros estaban yendo para el norte.

The travelers were going north.

Usage #3: Deadlines

When you make a deadline or appointment, you will need to use para.

Por ejemplo:

Tengo una cita con el doctor para el miércoles.

He needs to finish the work by next Monday.

Él necesita terminar el trabajo para el próximo lunes.

I have an appointment with the doctor for Wednesday.

Usage #4: Comparisons and Opinions

If you want to say, “For me, once is enough,” or “For a second-grader, he’s very tall,” you will use para.

Por ejemplo:

Usage #5: Employment

If you want to talk about who someone works for, you will use para.

Por ejemplo:

Ramiro trabaja para un negocio de inversiones.

Ramiro works for an investment business.

La señora Bastidas del Carmen trabaja para la compañía eléctrica.

Mrs. Bastidas del Carmen works for the electric company.

DON’T confuse this with:

• Hice el trabajo por él.
I did the job for him.

Look at Usage #4 of por to see why.
 

Usage #6: Instructions

If you want to say what one has to do in order to accomplish something, you will use para. In this case, it will mean “to” or “in order to.”

Por ejemplo:

Usage #7: Purpose

If you want to talk about what something is for, or its purpose, use para.

Por ejemplo:

When POR and PARA Get Confusing

If you can’t think of which one to use, you can probably say either por or para and still get your meaning across. However, be warned: the word you choose may affect how someone understands your sentence.

Confusion #1

El señor Vega-Ramos fue para Buenos Aires. - Mr. Vega went to Buenos Aires.

El señor Vega-Ramos fue por Buenos Aires. - Mr. Vega went via Buenos Aires.


Confusion #2

Estoy para salir. - I’m in the mood to leave. 

Estoy por salir. - I’m about to leave.


Confusion #3

¿Por qué estudias español? - For what reason you study Spanish?
—Porque me gusta el idioma. —Because I like the language.

¿Para qué estudias español? - For what purpose do you study Spanish?
—Para poder viajar a España. —To be able to travel to Spain.

Confusion #4

I bought beer for my friends (in order to enjoy it together).
 

Compré cerveza por mis amigos (con el dinero que me dieron).
I bought beer for my friends (with the money they gave me).


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